Kala azar killed scores of people in Sudan and what is now South Sudan three decades ago. It was a mystery disease and it took time for MSF to correctly identify and treat people for it. Today it affects 400,000 a year and kills 40,000. The pharma industry has long ignored neglected diseases like kala azar because they primarily affect people in poor countries. MSF has adapted available drugs as best it can, but we need better diagnostics and treatment now.