These five ideas are an interesting start to getting us out of the unproductive education reform rut of the last decade. What is missing from this list is recognition of the broader causes of disparities that include education and health. As implied in Cynthia's fifth point, racial segregation played a role but we also segregated poor people. Poverty and the stresses it can produce are critical issues and we somehow have to find a way to protect kids from the stresses of poverty and segregation. David Brooks had a good recent article (http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/28/opinion/brooks-the-psych-approach.html?_r=0) on this which also won't come up in the presidential debates. Neighborhoods have an effect too.